If you thought something was rubbish, use words such as "inconsistent", . This section of the project should take at least as long as the remaining sections of the paper combined. Have other intelligent people proofread the paper, and indicate what sections do not flow well or make sense to them. Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed. Group research studies and other types of literature (reviews, theoretical articles, case studies, etc. Subject Specialists in your discipline or area of study are available for additional help on literature reviews.
Also be sure to note any gaps in the published research, particularly if your project addresses the gaps. Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction. As shown in the below diagram, different types of publications correspond to different stages of the research life cycle. Research tells a story and the existing literature helps us identify where we are in the story currently. It is up to those writing a dissertation to continue that story with new research and new perspectives but they must first be familiar with the story before they can move forward. Evaluate the current "state of the art" for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study.
It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books, dissertations, conference proceedings and other resources which are relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory and provides context for a dissertation by identifying past research. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. Provide the reader with strong "umbrella" sentences at beginnings of paragraphs, "signposts" throughout, and brief "so what" summary sentences at intermediate points in the review to aid in understanding comparisons and analyses. Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space (length) denotes significance.
A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. This guide focuses on issues around publishing research journal articles in the sciences. This article provides steps to writing the introduction and literature review sections of an academic research paper. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review. For information related to your specialty, contact your subject librarian . The literature review should move from what is currently published and known about the topic to what your project is going to add to the topic.
This guide provides resources to help you with each step of publishing your journal article. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review. This is a multidisciplinary guide for graduate students interested in first steps to consider when starting a literature review for their dissertation. Use the first few sentences or paragraph to describe the problem, issue or question your research project is focusing on. Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic; or conflicts in theory, methodology, evidence, and conclusions; or gaps in research and scholarship; or a single problem or new perspective of immediate interest. Helps you to avoid reinventing the wheel by discovering the research already conducted on a topic. It is important to have a good introduction that clearly tells the reader what the literature will be about. Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, thus providing an appropriate context for reviewing the literature. However, research journal articles still remain the main output for primary research results. Publishing a scientific journal article in the sciences entails the following steps: .
This is a good example of an introduction because it has a topic sentence which indicates what will be covered and also tells the reader the specific focus of the literature review in the concluding sentence. Researchers in the sciences are expanding their publishing venues from traditional journals, books, and conference proceedings to many other venues including webpages, social media, data publication, etc. The introduction and literature review to an empirical research study set the stage for the reader. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.